The list of tips contains in brackets indices designating combinations
of media and functions.
The key for the
tips 1-3: Interactive Urban Experience with Digital Media (internet,
mobile telephone and locative media)
(June 2005 - June 2006, in German)
tips 1: Urban Experience with Locative Media (mapping), part
1, part 2 and part 3
(June 2005/ December 2005/ June 2006/ November 2006/ September 2007, in German)
tips 2: Games in Urban Contexts (pervasive games), part
2 , part 3 and part 4
(October 2005/ December 2005/ June2006/ January 2007/ June 2008, in German)
tips 3: Facades and Telepresence (installations), part 1 and part 2
(June 2006/ January 2007/ November 2009, in German)
- Short tips in chronological order: NetArt
- Short tips in alphabetical order:
- Dan Albritton/Marcos Weskamp: Newsmap,
2004: The algorithm for visualizations provided by the program Treemap
(Ben Shneiderman u.a., Human Computer Interaction Lab, University of
Maryland, since 1990) is implemented in "Newsmap" for the
mapping of Google News. News with many "related articles"
receive wider rectangles with integrated links to one of the messages
collected by Google News. The hierarchical structure from big rectangles
above left to small rectangles bottom right originates from "Treemap"
and serves in "Newsmap" for the indication of the amount of
news about the same event. The colours of rectangles mark types of news
like "business", "technology" and "sports".
After the choice of countries (and languages, see the bar above), the
type of the news and the date (bottom) it is possible to open submaps
(Treemap, Flash. 6/2007; 3/2020 not available in the net).
- AlteredQualia: xg,
2014: The eyes of the 3D simulation of a head stare at a point, as if
they were orienting themselves to a user in front of the monitor. At
the same time the head follows the movements of the cursor. Light and
shadow change with the head movements (Web GL, GGX/BRDF (bidirectional
reflectance distribution functions), eyes with "BlendSwap"
by Max Puliero; 7/2015).
- and-or (René Bauer/Beat Suter): Laichenberg
(defect3) fraq spawn, 2010: After players have downloaded
the ego-shooter application they find themselves in a bunker system
confronted with soldiers. The player must not be successful in her/his
effort to kill as much soldiers as possible because losers are set back
to their previous state and can proceed playing in the midst of the
killed soldiers´ bodies. In representations of the ennemies´
actions and the gunfire the game program provokes an effect of estrangement
instead of a persuading fulfilment of the needs of a realistic simulation.
With more and more killed soldiers the possibilities of the player to
move become more limited until (s)he is immovable. The player´s
self disablement and the undermining of the demanded realistic simulation
of the battle challenges the computer game genre ego-shooter and its
- and-or (René Bauer/Beat Suter)/Auer, Johannes: searchSonata
181, 2010: Entries by visitors of the project´s website and
random selections out of entries written by visitors of the search system
Bing are used by a poetic generator to constitute a "words-pool".
An automated password generator follows FIPS (Federal Information Processing
Standard) 181 (withdrawn on October 19, 2015) describing a procedure
for programming systems to produce passwords with a random generator
defined by another standard (FIPS PUB 197). These passwords have to
be on one side "simple pronouncable syllables" and on the
other side complex enough to protect against cracking. If the generated
sequences of letters are read in performances then they pose special
requirements to actrices and actors. In video documentations the performances
return to the net world (6/2013).
- Ian Andrews: Ether-1,
2002: The index to audiovisual Flash-Animations simulates the radio´s
frequency search system. The radio scale of the wave frequency is substituted
by a vertical scale of the files´ seizes in kBytes. The animations
deal with characteristics of the literary, musical and artistic avant-gardes.
The interface refers to the mass medium radio which was predominant
together with newspaper and film in the beginning of these avant-gardes.
The graduation within the vertical kB-scale from the left to the right
side presents the needs of the microprocessor´s capacities to
reproduce the animated time without delay (Flash. 3/2003).
- Jim Andrews: Seattle
Drift, 1997: The DHTML-poetry describes its own drift away. The
drift can be stopped or refreshed, but it can´t be influenced.
Andrews´ comments are integrated into the source code (3/2003).
- Jim Andrews: Aleph
Null, 2011: An interface with "sliders" offers possibilities
to change the ways how "Aleph Null" generates colour music.
The slider interface starts after the input of the number "1"
(or a click on the signet of "Aleph Null" at the top left
corner). The manual opens if the cursor is moved in an area at the bottom
right corner. Meanwhile "Aleph Null" generates colour music
the "sliders" can be used to change the forms and the colours
- Mauricio Arango: Vanishing
Point, 2005: Messages with daily news are stored in a news database
if the events are reported in one or two daily newspapers of the seven
largest countries in the world. A world map ("Peter´s Projection
Map") demonstrates in grayscale how much messages on events per
country are stored in the database within the last 50 days. RSS Feeds
of the daily newspapers offer short versions of the news and can be
requested after selections of countries (PHP scripts, Flash. 6/2007.
10/2009 not available in the net).
- Cory Arcangel: Data
Diaries, 2003: The daily dates of Arcangel´s RAM in January
2003 are translated with Quicktime in colour and b/w-animations. The
conversion of data with ready-made software fulfills anti-artistic intentions.
Arcangel´s RAM-videos are discussed in controversies
- Burak Arikan: MYPOCKET,
2008: "MYPOCKET" demonstrates the consequences of predicitions
based on probability calculations: Burak Arikan´s transactions
from his bank account of the last three years constitute the data source
for prediction´s on the artist´s next transactions. When
Arikan integrates the predictions in his way of life then a circle emerges
between human acting and programmed predicitions. "MYPOCKET"
includes "Transaction Graphs" for the visualisation of executed
transactions, a RSS Feed for the transmission of predictions, and a
documentation of transfer receipts with a stamped information about
the predicted probability (Java, Flash, RSS Feed. 6/2013).
- Michael Aschauer, Josef Deinhöfer, Maia Gusberti, Nik Thönen:
./logicaland, 2002: The world
model with statistics started in the "first run" with dates
of the year 2000, ready for the users´ manipulations. Single users
can´t produce recognizable visual changes because the system can
solely register common modifications (free software: GNU
- Babel (Chris Joseph): Turnbaby,
2002: The experimental studies of Thomas Alva Edison (two films, end
of 19th century) and a video of b´toch bet are presented in short
sequences and stills. Moving pictures, video sequences and simultaneous
presentations with possibilities for changes via click operations constitute
net configurations of the photographic and filmic montage. The historicizing
element is reduced to a short form of the relations between cultures
of body movements and the history of media. In 2002, "Turnbaby"
constituted an exemplary actualization of the visual net possibilities
- René Bauer/Beat Suter: Apple
in Space, 2004: The project recreates Reinhard Döhl´s
Apfelgedicht of 1965 and
Johannes Auer´s worm
applepie for doehl (1997). The apple of the poems is modified in
"Apple in Space" into a contour drawing with lines connecting
numbered points. The actual search entries in Fireball´s Live
Livesuche, German search engine with a live search permanently reloaded)
`stream´ with Streamfishing
from the left side to the right side. Clicks on words open the Fireball´s
search results and the clicked words are presented in blue letters within
the stream of words meanwhile words in red letters are "potential
worms" (René Bauer): If these words appear within the apple´s
contour then they are `enriched´ with terms out of the words´
context in the database, storing files of Reinhard
Döhl´s website (the context: 30 signs in the text of
the database to the left direction and from there 60 signs to the right
side). If the apple is filled then it lets escape the catched words
and the catching of words starts again (Java. The flicker on PCs disappears
on Macs. 6/2007).
- Mark Beasley: reply-all.org,
2008/Version II, 2009: The mailing list accompanies the writing of emails
by proposing alternatives generated with the texts of the archived mails
as source material. The list.serv/mailing-list software selects some
authors of former emails as receivers of a new mail by the system´s
criteria (similarity of mailed texts "based on factors of length,
content, and similar word frequency"). The alternative propositions
and the addressing are modified by the growing amount of stored mails.
The texts of archived mails are changed by the system and the changes
are marked with square brackets. A bot uses the mail archive to generate
entries for Twitter: see reply_all
from the project of 2008/2009).
- Vibeke Bertelsen/Zack Christ: Valley
of Uncanny #01, 2014: In the browser the Dane Vibeke Bertelsen adds
a visual to Zack Christ's "Tungo": He coordinates animations
of a head, programmed in WebGL, with the music of Christ by means of
"multiple tracks of keyframes". The horizontal and vertical
inclination of the head can be modified by cursor movements (WebGL,
- Simon Biggs: Babel,
2001: 3D number projections of the Dewey Decimal Classification System
(used in libraries) are modifiable by click operations and appear
modified because the operations of other users are observable. Clicks
on numbers open windows to ca. 1000 Websites which Biggs coordinated
with numbers. These sites are subordinated to the hierarchical classification
system of libraries. The flow of number projections demonstrates the
non-observable plurality of available data and makes it possible at
the same time to dive into thematically arranged websites. "Babel"
creates a data space as well as an imagination area between the impossibility
of an overview and arranged varieties (3/2003).
- Wafaa Bilal: Domestic
Tension, 2007: The Iraqi Wafaa Bilal installed a bed, two tables,
a computer and a training bike in a room of the Flatfile Gallery in
Chicago where he lived for a month (the duration of the exhibition).
"Paintballs" filled with yellow colour were poured into a
container of a shooting robot. The visitors of the project´s website
saw the recordings of the camera mounted on the top of the robot, and
they could activate the mechanism to shoot the paintballs. The visitors
could communicate with each other on a chat. Bilal wanted to recall
the death of his brother caused by an American missile and asked himelf
how he could import the Iraqi situation into the safe environment of
the United States (precursor: Caleb Larsen´s installation Monument
(2006) reacted to web data about killed persons by shooting little yellow
balls into an exhibition room. 6/2013).
- Natalie Bookchin: The
Intruder, 1999: In Jorge Luis Borges´ novel "La Intrusa"
1966) two brothers desire the same woman. Bookchin transforms the story
into a game with ten levels. The fictive actions of "shooting,
fighting, catching, or colliding" (Bookchin,
2005) are rebuild as interfaces partially with modifications of
game classics like "Pong" or "Space Invaders". The
players take over the roles either of one of the brothers or of their
victim. As a reward after having fulfilled the goal of a level the players
can listen to further passages of the novel. The players fulfill the
goals not only by winning but by losing, too. The players are forced
into the roles of the brothers several times for whom the murder of
the desired person saves their bortherly love (Shockwave. 6/2013).
- MEZ Breeze: The
V[R]erses, since 2019: MEZ Breeze distributes numbers in three-dimensional
rotatabale fantasy figures designed by her. Clicks on the numbers open
text parts, which authors wrote as "microstories" for each
"V[R]erses". The 3D simulation can be observed with VR glasses,
but also on the screen (Web VR, VR glasses, sound; 3/2020).
- Jonah Brucker-Cohen: Google
Alert Loop, 2008: Google News and web search results can be received
via Google Alert as emails
in an automated selection following criteria installed by users. Brucker-Cohen
forwards these messages to a blog on Blogger.com
(owned by Google). The message repeated in Google Alert is repeated
in the blog and can be repeated again in Google Alert (using only Google
services as resources) and in the blog. Google´s strategy to sustain
the distribution of many messages is shown in its consequences: infinite
loops of messages (10/2009; 3/2020: project inactive).
- Büro Destruct/CUE/Humantools: Los
Logos, 2002: The site "Los Logos" is open for mails with
photos of found logos and signets. The participation of users constitutes
an archive which includes logos of corporations as well as signets of
minor firms and shops. A lot of these signs disappear as a consequence
of the concentration on a few corporations with many branches. The users´
contributions are integrated into a 3D logo-city together with references
to the found locations. The simulation of an urban context with illustrations
of more and more extincted real logos and signets serves the project
to reconstruct the vanishing local refractions of urbanity which included
- Andrew C. Bulhak: The
Postmodernism Generator, 2000: The "Postmodernism Generator"
produced 887238 articles from 2/25/2000 to 8/18/2003. Each call causes
the processing of a new text. Bulhak uses his Dada
Engine in a version modified by Joash Larios to execute chance operations
in syntactic recursions. The "Generator" and its travesty
of postmodern theory allows a comprehension as a kind of consequence
of the postmodern pastiche which suggests a transgression of the framework
- Heath Bunting:
_readme.html, own, be owned or remain invisible, 1997: The text
source is an article on Bunting written by James Flint and published
in The Daily Telegraph. Bunting uses the article´s words xyz as
links to URL-addresses http://www.xyz.com. Since 1997 more and more
of these constructed links connect to used web addresses. A classic
project of NetArt (3/2003).
- Ralf Chille: Capture
the Map, 2003: A player tries to win in games against the computer
or another player. For both sides 64 blue or orange pins are hold available
to be located on the world map following the terms typed by the players
or chosen by the computer (on the left side for the blue party and on
the right side for the orange adversary). Terms are assigned to places
using the NetGeo-database
of the Cooperative Association for Internet Data. The winner was able
to place all pins faster than the adversary. If the game will be finished
before the winner located all pins then the achieved points will be
the measure for the ascertainment of the winner (The points are designated
as "sticks" and if the amount of "sticks" achieved
by both parties is the same then it will be critical which adversary
has occupied and secured more "squares" respectively "fields"
(on "saved fields": see the "introduction". Flash.
6/2007. 10/2009 not available in the net).
- Paolo Cirio/Alessandro Ludovico: Face
to Facebook, 2011: Paolo Cirio and Alessandro Ludovico took away
one million Facebook profiles and examined how useful they can be for
a dating website. A program for facial recognition was used to classify
the profiles following criteria for gender and for categories like "smug
man" or "easy going woman". On the dating site
lovely-faces.com an access for visitors to the groups being installed
by this classification process can be generated by chance operations.
Facebook reacted as expected with a cease and desist order against the
dating site´s reuse of the data that Facebook claims to possess.
Visitors can use Facebook Messages to communicate with the people featured
by the profiles (6/2013).
- Nicolas Clauss: Le
Cri, 2002: Users are able to determine the performance of Stéphane
Copin´s actions and the music ("Piano Phenstec" with
music of Karlheinz Stockhausen) by faster or slower click sequences...as
if the click operations cause sounds and cries, as if the performer
Copin reacts to faster click sequences and louder sounds with faster
head movements, as if an increasing pain forces him to act (Director,
- Wayne Clements: logo_wiki,
2007: Virgil Griffith´s WikiScanner
(2007) supplies the data for logo_wiki: If the IP-adresses of anonymous
authors changing articles in Wikipedia can be traced back by WikiScanner
to servers of armies, governments and corporations then logo_wiki indicates
in real time the present activities and replaces the Wikipedia logo
by the logo of the company or institution being the writer´s employer
- Florian Cramer: Permutationen,
Frühjahr 1996-1998: Cramer offers word combination machines, proteus
lyrics and other literary chance operations in net reconstructions which
allow to proceed playing with chances. It is possible to explore for
example the "Systema Infinitum" (Anonymous, 1717) and Raymond
Queneau´s «Cent mille milliards de poèmes»
via game actions in Cramer´s web versions meanwhile Tristan Tzara´s
instruction «pour faire un poème dadaiste» is executable
with the help of a selection of newspapers, inscriptions of URL-addresses
or inscriptions in a textual field. In "Here comes everybody"
letters have to be chosen before syllables will be offered by a textual
automat. Furthermore it presents syllable combinations in response to
selected syllables and offers a procedure to invent words. James Joyce´s
"Finnegans Wake" serves as a source for the construction of
port manteau words (Perl, free software: GNU
- Douglas Davis: The
World´s First Collaborative Sentence, 1994: The classic of net projects
for collaborative writing adds the contributions one after another like
an exquisit corpse. Davis resists prescriptions except the rule that
contributions have to close without point. Inventive users knocked out
the program safeguarding the compliance with that rule. The ca. 200.000
contributions are divided in pages (in August 2003: 21 pages) (3/2003.
Message 6/2007: network timeout. Documentation in the Internet
- Julien Deswaef/Matthew Plummer-Fernandez: Shiv
Integer, 2016: From February 2016 to May 2017, a bot randomly selected
.stl-format designs for 3D printers with a Creative Commons license
for remix versions from the database of "Thingiverse" and
combined the designs into useless variants that were partially not printable
in 3D. The names for these versions were also generated from elements
of the "Thingiverse" archive. With these names, the .stl-files
were saved in "Thingiverse" under "shivinteger".
The "Generating Attributions Log" lists the designs used by
the bot for combinations. The authors of the selected designs received
warnings from "Thingiverse". In the comments, the generated
versions are often referred to as spam (Bot; 3/2020).
- Disnovation.org (Nicolas Maigret/Jerome Saint-Clair/Maria Roszkowska):
Predictive Art Bot , 2015-18:
A bot interferes with the filter bubbles of social media by selections
of current news from different platforms as text sources, from which
he generates concepts for the realization of artworks. On the left side,
messages from three platforms are updated, while on the right hand side
new concepts are created automatically. Users can choose which generated
concepts will be saved on Twitter
(Bot, Bootstrap; 3/2020).
- Constant Dullaart/Adam Harvey: DullDream,
2017: "DullDream" invites users to enter photos. Transformed
by one of the two types of pattern recognition ("v1"/"v2")
offered for selection, the photos are not changed in order to be more
striking in the sense of a program fed with photo data in a certain
way, but to take their peculiarities beyond recognition: They become
"dull", as the examples in the "Gallery of Recent Images"
show. The "Detailed Analysis" shows the different types of
image processing by demonstrating six ("v2") to seven ("v1")
transformation phases of an image. Deep learning strategies of Google's
Dream and the use of image recognition tools in market research
are counteracted (3/2020).
- Frédéric Durieu: Oeil
complex, 2000: In moving their cursors users are able to explore
the surprising constellations of 3D eyes in «oeil complex»,
the most interesting work of the project-set oeil
pour oeil pour oeil (Director). Durieu tells he needed one day to
write the source code of that example of an "algorithmic poetry"
with the function 1/ (a+bi) (Interview with Jim Andrews, Paris
- Jonathan Feinberg/Marek Walczak/Martin Wattenberg: Apartment,
2001: Typed words with semantic fields of habitation are assigned to
twelve categories for types of housing spaces. This coordination is
the basis material for the generation of storable ground plans showing
the categories of the housing spaces´ types and the typed terms.
Some typed terms are presented on the ground plans as animated loops.
Stored flats can be recalled with the help of maps ("cities")
in configurations based on plan characteristics. Web search engines
find pictures using the typed terms for the generation of three-dimensional
elements. Observers are able to move through the VRML-elements and listen
to the typed words via text-to-speech software (Java, VRML files f.e.
you can construct files of the three-dimensional version with FreeWRL
or Cortona and open the constructed WRL file in Firefox. 6/2007).
- Mary Flanagan: [six.circles],
2004: Two players move triangles above other triangles and build hexagons.
Three triangles per hexagon have to be infected with a red "x"
before they can be closed with an element constituted by two chain links.
Closed hexagons appear yellow. Green Greek crosses can be used for the
healing of hexagons infected with too much red crosses. The player with
the higher amount of points will be the winner of the game. It was developed
for the Wooloo Organization´s "Thank you" show to collect
money for a HIV Education Center in Khayelitsha/South Africa (Flash.
- Ben Fry: Anemone,
2000: The web installation of "Anemone´s" "toy
version integrates the user logs in its reconstruction of the website
with projects of The Aesthetics
+ Computation Group (ACG, MIT Media Laboratory, Leitung: John Maeda).
The two-dimensional visualization exemplifies the concept of the Organic
Information Design: Its growing ramification follows a "reproduction
rule" and the relocatable branches are coordinated by a "movement
rule". The project "Anemone" simplifies the oberservers´
orientation in complex structured websites with constant alterations.
The thickness of white connections signifies the frequency of requests
meanwhile orange lines present the obervers´ routes in the site
of ACG. Clicks on branches and lines open the indicated URL-addresses
(C++, OpenGL, Java. 6/2007).
- Ben Grosser: Facebook
Demetricator, 2012: Meanwhile Burak Arikan indicates in "MyPocket"
(2008, s. short tip) the consequences of the quantification of life
for statistics and predictions the way of life and the data world
penetrate each other, until the first will be determined by the last
, Ben Grosser´s browser extension (for Google Chrome, Safari,
Firefox with Greasemonkey) hides the statistics integrated in Facebook:
The numbers for the amounts of friends, comments and "likes"
- Guerillamarketing.it/molleindustria.it: where-next.com,
2005: The winner foresees the place of the next terrorist attack more
precise than others: The players click the chosen location on a world
map with an aerial view and choose one of the six attack types on the
form below the map. The player with the most precise preview wins if
within 48 hours ten or more civilian lives will be reported to be victims
of attacks in non warring regions (decisive: the selection of the attack
type and the precision of the localization). Winners receive yellow
T-shirts with imprints informing on place and time as well as presenting
a photo of the attack combined with the sentence "I predicated
it". "Political correctness" is set at defiance for the
goal to reduce to absurdity the capitalistic logic of the "profits
regardless of morale" and the means of the entertaining industry
like the combination of game, spectacle and violence in a precarious
case: The real victims are ignored in the game like for example the
arms manufacturers and the computer games industry disregard the consequences
- Jonathan Harris: Universe,
2007: The project enables observers to jump in an associative manner
between the daily news of different newspapers. The messages of the
American news aggregator Daylife
can be called up with typed keywords. A Java applet offers several possibilities
to relate the found messages with contexts. For example, in "shapes"
appear keywords, as if the letters are representations of the firmament´s
star constellations. After a click on one of the keywords, the found
messages circulate around a centre where, after the next click, the
chosen message appears, and then the following click on this message
recalls messages suitable to the title (used as keyword) within the
chosen timeframe ("past day/past month/past year"). Links
lead to "Daylife" and its sources (Java, Processing. 6/2007).
- Tiffany Holmes: World
Offset, 2008: The project stimulates participants to reduce their
production of carbon (CO2). A list of possible carbon reductions offers
participants to indicate (anonymous or with usernames) their plans respectively
"promises". Statistics and a map (Google API) show the present
state of reductions if the promises have real consequences. The
project helps participants to instruct themselves voluntarily. They
decide if the boundary between the data world and the ecological practice
will be transgressed (10/2009; 3/2020: project inactive).
- Brian House: Tanglr, 2013:
If the Google Chrome extension will be installed and activated then
its user will be connected anonymously with a partner chosen by the
system. The browser of each partner indicates the surfing actions of
the other side. If someone wants to stay capable to browse on the net
then both partners have to find a way to cooperate: To be able to browse
the partner is needed to regain the lost control (Python, Tornado. Free
software: GNU GPL.
- Lisa Jevbratt/C5: 1:1(2),
1999/2001-2002: The first version of the database "1:1" was
realized in 1999. It used IP (Internet Protocol) addresses which have
been found with the help of crawlers. The database was actualized in
2001-2002 in the field of the IP addresses of 1999. The address research
didn´t notice the kinds of accesses to sites. Five interfaces
allow different entrances to both databases. The interface "migration"
demonstrates the changes of IP addresses from 1999 (red) to 2001 (green)
- Michael Joyce: Twelve
Blue, 1996: The hyperfiction was programmed with Storyspace
(Joyce developed the software with Pascal). The multilinear narration
presents "8 bars" as horizontal textual lines which are segmented
vertically in "12 threads". (12 x 8) textual segments are
connected by 169 links. In the segments of the hyperfiction return metaphorical
expressions for water and color ("blue") in 12 months ("12
threads" from December to November). These "threads"
create a linear progression in the multilinear narration: Joyce´s
segments offer progressive action lines (Heibach, Christiane: Literatur
im Internet. Theorie und Praxis einer kooperativen Ästhetik. Thesis
Universität Heidelberg 2000, p.260-266. 3/2003).
- Carlos Katastrofsky: Area
Research, 2004: After "Neighbourhood Research" (2004,
not anymore available in the net) presented only two IP addresses in
the neighbourhood of a chosen URL-address, now "Area Research"
offers twenty surrounding IP and URL-addresses. Not few of these links
to digital neighbours lead to webpages with "forbidden" access
- Mario Klingemann/Oleg Marakov: Islands
of Consciousness, 2006: An index on the right side displays thumbnails
of pictures downloaded from Flickr.com and presented as a stream of
pictures in big size. The selection of the photos is not completely
at random: At least one property has to be a common part of two consecutive
pictures. But the visual effects are the results of chance operations.
The music is generated with elements of a database with audiofiles (40
MB). This soundtrack influences the sequences of repeated photos and
the visual effects. The film is generated on the computers of the observers
in real time with the consequence that obervers on different computers
never see the same field (Flash, Flashr. 6/2007; 3/2020: the audio generation
only functions; image generation as video
- Nick Knouf: MAICGregator,
2009: Via data mining the Firefox Extension substituted links and illustrations
of academic websites (universities and colleges) by external links and
illustrations indicating connections to the military-industrial-complex.
Furthermore the search for informations on trustees was supported ("Current
Alternative News"). The unaltered website was receivable by a click
on the refresh button (Free Software: GNU
GPL V3 with modifications.
Actualised until 2014; 10/2009, 7/2015).
- Steve Lambert: Add-Art, 2008:
The plugin was based on the Firefox Extension Adblock
Plus (2006) and substituted advertisements by illustrations made
by artists. They were actualised every two weeks. The browser presented
a red ADB logo at the top of the right. A click on the logo opened a
Source. Not actualised for later versions of Firefox; 10/2009, 7/2015).
- Olia Lialina: My
boyfriend came back from the war, 1996: The page appears first divided
into two frames. On the left side appears a frame with two picture fragments
(a window and a pair) without click functions. The right frame shows
Lialina´s portrait and then divides itself from click to click
into further frames with textual and illustrated fragments. Finally
a lot of black frames are shown, except two frames on the left and right
side. The first frame on the left side remains unchanged and the bottom
of the right side presents Lialina´s name with a mailto-link.
A classic of the frames application (3/2003).
- Olia Lialina: Self Portrait,
2018: A diagram shows how a 'film' can be put together from three sources
on the screen. On the left, a web page accessible via one of the usual
web browsers is to be arranged, while in the middle another URL address
is to be accessed via the Tor browser and on the right a URL address
is presented for an access via Beaker: The Tor browser calls up the
webpage in a way that is difficult to monitor compared to normal web
browsers, while Beaker uses a "dat://" protocol. Lialina uses
the browsers to combine three internet structures to form a self-portrait
with wind blowing hair into her face. In a loop of image sequences running
synchronously in the three browsers as if they are part of a film sequence,
Lialina strokes her hair out of her face with her right hand (three
browsers for different Internet protocols and instructions for their
.jpg photos; 3/2020).
- Les Liens Invisibles: Repetitionr,
2010: Participators fill out the petition form and indicate how many
signatures should be produced. The authors of petitions will be informed
by e-mails on the progress of the signature production. "Repetitionr"
helps to avoid petitions without signatures. Sites like "Repetitionr"
demonstrate that consent statistics should be a subject for doubts (6/2013).
- Jonas Lund: The
Paintshow, 2012: Paintshop.biz
is a web program for the collaborative creation of pictures with mouse
movements (compare Graphic
Jam, 1999, by Andy Deck and Mark Napier). If a participant finishes
the collaborative creation by clicking on "Sign & Sell the
Painting", then (s)he can sign the image with a name of her/his
choice which will be one of the data relevant for the ranking in the
archive of signed images. The calculation of the fame of an artist´s
name used as a signature is based on statistics by Artfacts Ranking,
Facebook Likes, Retweets and Google Page Rank. This calculation determines
the sequence of the images in the online
catalogue, and after the sale of an image the signing person receives
the proceeds (minus expenses). Buyers can order a realisation on canvas
for each of the images in the online catalogue. Thousand colour prints
of the first thousand images of the ranking are presented in the Paintshow
(Studio of the Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 12/12-12/19/2012)
arranged gapless on the walls (Buyers received the colour prints of
the exhibition without delay, and the sold image was substituted by
another one. 6/2013).
- Andrew Lyman: [openspace]
wilderness, 2014: Andrew Lyman archived a part of the posts stored
on blogger.com before Google Plus´ takeover. In 2014 the stored
posts were six or more years old. Non-English blogs as well as blogs
containing "less than two posts" were filtered out. Via Google
Blogger API search requests can be carried out within the ID-system
for 9 digits being used until 1999. In "[openspace] wilderness"
old posts can be evaluated ("[like]") and commented ("[comment]").
After visitors of the site registered themselves as "predators"
or "foragers" they get different access rights to functions
enabling them to react to archived posts and to revive the database
to a `second life´ (django vl.5 as Editor, Python, jquery, HTML,
CSS; 7/2015; 3/2020: project inactive, video
- Nicolas Maigret: The Pirate
Cinema, 2013: The online version presents a stream of BitTorrent
film segments selected from the 100 most popular Pirate
Bay downloads. In the transmission from client to client (peer to
peer) the films are fragmented and reassembled after the transmission
(torrenting). The countries sending and receiving the film fragments
are presented on the left and right of the upper side of the screen.
In installations up to five computers ensure a constant download of
simultaneously presented film segments (7/2015).
- Michael Mandiberg: Oil
Standard, 2006; Real Costs,
2007: The plug-in "Oil Standard" for the Firefox browser changes
the prices indicated on webpages from U.S. dollar to raw oil prices
(in "barrel"). The prizes of goods are changed in real time
in "barrel" following the changing raw oil prices. In 2007,
Mandiberg develops the plug-in further in "Real Costs": It
substitutes the flight data on the websites of airline companies like
Orbitz.com, United.com and Delta.com by calculations of the CO2 emissions.
The CO2 emissions of airplanes are compared with the air pollution of
trains and busses at travels covering the same distances (Firefox Extension
- Pauline Masurel: Blue
Hyacinth, 2002: Four short novels appear in different blue tones.
Two squares are partitioned in four fields in different tones which
offer click surfaces for the call of the texts. Each of the texts is
segmented in 30 pieces. Cursor movements over the selected text provokes
integrations of textual pieces in other colors. In the source code Masurel
explains the integration of numbered textual pieces in "slices"
(Stir Fry Indices based on the DHTML inner HTML method). It is possible
to generate 1.152.921.504.606.846.976 texts (3/2003).
- !Mediengruppe Bitnik: Random
Darknet Shopper, 2014: For an installation in the exhibition "The
Darknet From Memes to Onionland. An Exploration" (Kunst
Halle St. Gallen 2014) Carmen Weisskopf and Domagoj Smoljo developed
a Bot using a random procedure to select each week in the darknet (accessible
only with a Tor-browser) one of the offers of the Agora Market Place
and to place orders, each with bitcoins in the value of 100$. The ordered
objects were sent to the Kunst Halle and there they were placed in one
of the installation´s ten glass boxes. After the finissage the
attorney Jan Duttweiler was informed about the inclusion of drugs as
parts of one of the exhibited projects. The attorney confiscated the
work, returned it three months later to !Mediengruppe Bitnik, and its
members were informed about the dropping of charges because the exhibition
of drugs in a non-consumable manner was deemed permissible. The police
has opened the parcel containing ten ecstasy pills and destroyed them
after the end of the investigation. The boxes with the ordered objects
and the web documentation
of the parcel´s contents remain as relics of the installation
(Terminal with Tor-browser, web crawler, 10 glass boxes; 7/2015).
- Moddr Lab: Web 2.0 Suicide
Machine, 2009: This website offers services to remove entries and
connected friends in accounts of the social networks Facebook, Myspace,
LinkedIn and Twitter. The password and the profile picture will be modified.
Then f.e. accounts of Facebook cannot be found anymore (but they are
not deleted). Facebook demands in the registration process to accept
that the social network claims to be the owner of all entries. Registrated
members increase Facebook´s property free of charge with their
contributions. Moddr Lab´s "Web 2.0 Suicide Machine"
and Les Liens Invisibles´ Seppukoo
(2009) point to the problem, that members of Facebook can´t act
self-responsible because they destroy parts of the social network´s
property if they try to erase their own contributions. Facebook reacted
to the "Web 2.0 Suicide Machine" and "Seppukoo"
with a cease and desist order and claimed its property rights (6/2013).
- Joana Moll: The Hidden
Life of an Amazon User, 2019: A screenshot shows the homepage of
Amazon with the search input "Jeff Bezos". When Moll bought his book
"The Life, Lessons & Rules for Succes..." on 17.6.2019, she also paid
attention to the codes Amazon uses to track user behaviour in order
to influence it. Under the screenshot Moll presents these codes being
usually invisible to users. The codes show information on the energy
consumption caused by themselves. In scrolling through the codes, the
numbers on energy consumption are growing, and users are confronted
with the energy consumption that is also caused by their personal computers:
Amazon's business model of being able to better manage the needs of
its customers is also at the expense of the customers. Moll demonstrates
- Molleindustria: Free
Culture Game, 2008: This open-ending game encircles figures representing
participants of an open source culture by agents seeking ways to use
copyright and patent laws for profits. The tactical game procedures
stand as representatives for the real activistic strategies to prohibit
a victory of the commercialization of copyright and the patent laws
- Molleindustria: Phone Story,
2011: A voice accompanies four mini games and explains the labour conditions
of different phases of the smartphone production. Among others the working
conditions to mine coltan in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and
at Foxconn in Taiwan are presented by the narrating voice simultaneously
to the player´s use of the game´s functions forcing her/him
to follow the employer´s goals. The complicity of the player as
a smartphone´s owner is the subject of the versions for Google
Android, MacOS and Windows. The iPhone version was censored by Apple
amd banned from the App Store. The prize of 73 cent for the Android
version is used by Molleindustria to sustain organizations engaged against
these inhuman working conditions (6/2013).
- Nick Montfort: ppg256
(Perl Poetry Generator in 256 characters), 2008-2012: Nick Montfort
presented "ppg256" in
articles and included versions of the code which can be pasted into
the "command line". Montfort followed the aim of Perl
Golf to write programs as short as possible, and wrote a code containing
not more than 256 letters. The program generates words and combines
them to poems with headlines and one to seven lines (Perl, 6/2013).
- Eduardo Navas: Traceblog,
2008: Daniel C. Howe and Helen Nissenbaum developed TrackMeNot
(2006) to conduct ad absurdum data-mining for the detection of private
preferences: The Firefox extension produces an abundance of search requests
at Google, Yahoo, MSN and AOL. The users´ real preferences remain
unacknowledged with the embedding of their real logs into the overloads.
Navas publishes in Traceblog protocols of the logs produced by his TrackMeNot
application beginning with the start of his Firefox browser. The protocols
are presented in a way not easy to read "to reference the actual
form in which the logs would be stored in a database." TrackMeNot
helps to generate in a Blogger
application an automatised blog contrary to the mass of blogs presenting
opinions. Blogger is owned by Google whose search engine is flooded
with requests useless for data-mining and its use for Google Ads and
other Google services (10/2009).
- Nullpointer (Tom Betts): WebTracer, version
2, 2003: The second version of the browser visualizes the links
between pages of a website in a three-dimensional diagram: The graphic
formation of lines between balls in different sizes and colours indicate
the positions of webpages within the structure of a site. This formation
is rotable with the arrow keys and it is scalable as well as diminishable.
It indicates the names of the websites´ files in the case of crossing
them with the cursor. The first vision allowed to open these files with
a click meanwhile this function is eliminated in the second version.
You can enter an URL address of a website in the second version to produce
files with data about internal links for the "visualizer"
and its construction of the site´s diagram (only for PC. OPENGL,
DirectX, C++. 6/2007).
- Einar Öberg: Urban
Jungle, 2014: After having selected a place on a modificated presentation
of Google Maps by entries for locations and/or by moving a "Pegman
icon" a view of this location with streets and facades overgrown
with fauna is shown in Google Street View. Google´s depth data
of Street Views are used by Öberg to transform views of urban areas
into an "urban jungle". The arrow of Google Street View is
presented in "Urban Jungle" as a three-dimensional virtual
object, and the observers´ points of view can be relocated only
in shorter distances as on Google Street View. Sometimes "Urban
Jungle" transports observers into 3D-Animations of interiors (Web
- Okhaos: Plantoid,
2016: Plantoid consists on the one hand of a kinetic sculpture that
imitates plant shapes, and on the other hand of a smart contract in
Ethereum (based on blockchain) that defines how the development of a
new "plant" is controlled by the funders. Each sculpture has
a "Bitcoin wallet" to which funders can transfer money. The
"plant" can respond to incoming donations with movement and
light. Each "plant" should be attractively designed by developers
so that enough Bitcoins are collected by sponsors to be able to start
the development of new "plants". Blockchain systems are understood
as Distributed Autonomous Systems (DAOs), and Primavera de Filippi deduces
from this the justification for calling "Plantoid a self-replicating
system" - nevertheless: "Plantoids cannot reproduce themselves
on their own." (De Filippi, Primavera: Plantoid the Birth
of a Blockchain-Based Lifeform. In: Catlow, Ruth/Garrett, Marc/Jonas,
Nathan/Skinner, Sam (eds.): Artists Re:Thinking the Blockchain. Liverpool
2017, p.60) (Blockchain, smart contract, kinetic metal sculpture, website;
- Julian Oliver: Border Bumping,
2012: The project includes an application for Android phones and a website
with a map. The application can be used at frontiers between states
to recognize differences between the geographic frontiers and the mobile
network´s detecting of them. The map presented on the project´s
site marks the differences between geographical frontiers and the change
of mobile services at frontiers (6/2013).
- Josh On & The Futurefarmers: They
Several diagrams demonstrate power relations as the result of the distribution
of places in supervisory boards of companies. The map "Pepsi urs
Coke" of the first version (2001) allowed to recognize such connections
particularly easy. The second version (2004) allows to request personal
connections between corporations, f.e. you can request the personal
connections between "PepsiCo" and "Coca-Cola". The
data of the adjustable icons for supervisory boards appear in popups.
Members of the activist group The
Futurefarmers collected the data for the project enabling them (and
us) to recognize relations of economic power and to use that knowledge
in actions. In 2004 the maps were actualized. Since 2011 LittleSis.org
supplies "They Rule" with dates of the 1000 top US companies
for the creation of new maps (Flash, PSP, MySQL. 3/2003, 6/2007, 6/2013).
- Trevor Paglen/The Institute for Applied Autonomy (IAA): terminalAir,
2007: On a world map, the project presents the air traffic of the CIA
(Central Intelligence Agency, U.S.A.) between commercial airports and
military bases. These flights are part of the CIA´s "extraordinary
rendition program" and are a constitutive element of illegal kidnappings
for the misuse of suspects by inquisition methods of torture. The "torture
taxi data" are selectable via the chronological scale below the
globe. The data will be actualized (Flash. 6/2007; 3/2020: parts of
the project are stored in the Internet
- W. Bradford Paley: TextArc,
2002: Relations between words of literary texts (exemplary realized
in Shakespeare´s "Hamlet" and in Lewis Carroll´s
"Alice´s Adventures in Wonderland", other cases offer
the texts of the Project Gutenberg)
are plotted by lines in an oval. Example "Hamlet": The frequency
of the occurrence of the words is related to the brightness of their
presentations. The verbal surroundings (the contexts in which words
reoccur) are represented by grey straight lines. The function "Pairwise
Associations" shows the sequence of word occurrences via lilac-coloured
curved lines. The repeated uses of word pairs are presented as straight
lines in colors from orange to red. Relations between groups of words
with a common origin can be called up under "show concordance"
(also over the Alt key or per double click) and are shown as straight
orange lines (Java. 3/2003).
- Will Pappenheimer/Tamiko Thiel: Biomer
Skelters, 2013: Smartphones or Tablet PCs are connected with sensors
for measurements of the heart rate. The heart rate device provides input
to an AR (Augmented Reality) system. In camera shots of the environment
appear via Layar simulations of plants, which grow in dependence from
the heart rate. Passers-by can select between local or exotic plants,
which are located on an AR map, and which are displayed on the screen
by the AR system when passing. The simulation of the local plants has
been adapted for various events in Liverpool, Dubai and Switzerland
(AR Map, biosensor, Google Map, HR transmitter, Layar, smartphone or
tablet PC with GPS receiver; 3/2020).
- Dan Phiffer/Mushon Zer-Aviv: ShiftSpace,
2006-2011: After the installation of the Greasemonkey Firefox Extension,
the ShiftSpace application (version 09, 14/6/2007) and the registration,
it is possible to annotate webpages as an offer to other readers to
open the annotations on the annotated page. The console can be activated
with the shift and space keys. The annotations of participants appear
on the annotated web page underneath the sign "§". A
list of actual annotations is presented on the homepage of the project
under the headline "latest shifted sites". A shift menu with
its buttons for different functions can be opened beside the cursor
by hitting the shift key. The "notes space" function allows
to write annotations meanwhile the "image swap" function can
be used to substitute images by other images stored for example in Flickr.com,
and "source shift" serves to change the source code (Firefox
GPL. 6/2007. 6/2013: The website is not available. The development
of the project ceased in 2011).
- Jason Rohrer: Passage,
2007: Players find their "passage" of life in the preset time
limit of five minutes. Two characters and the playground are presented
in an 8 bit visualisation. The game can be played with one or two characters.
At the beginning appears a narrow horizontal path. It opens to a maze
if the player uses the arrow keys for vertical moves. The male character
can leave the path to the maze before or after his meeting with a female
character being his companion in the game course. Whatever the player
does: S/he can´t prevent the dying of the female and the male
character one after the other (with mtPaint and SDL Library. Application
with 4,9 MB for download, available for Windows, Mac, Linux and iPhone.
- Paul Seidler/Max Hampshire/Paul Kolling: terra0,
2016: "terra0" is a concept of a forest area managing itself
by establishing a digital system via Ethereum. In a first procedure,
a system receives data about saleable trees, either by humans
or by means of a monitoring
system. These trees are sold by means of share certificates in the
form of smart contracts in Ether. As soon as the system has enough revenue
to be able to manage itself, it buys back the shares from the project
initiators to be able to decide itself on purchases and sales. In this
way, a forest is installed as a "non-human actor" (NHA) of
a Digital Autonomous Organization (DAO) (Blockchain, smart contract,
website, forest; 3/2020).
- John Simon Jr: Every
Icon, 1996/97: When starting the system begins to generate all variants
of the possible combinations of black and white squares in a grid with
32 x 32 squares. The system (programmed in Java) will generate all variants
in "several hundred trillion years" until all squares will
be black. The processor of the computer conditions the project, not
the web connectivity. The classic of computer art exists in variants
for the Internet, Powerbook Monitor and Palm Pilot (Java. 3/2003).
- Leonardo Solaas: Dreamlines,
2005: A PHP script reacts to the entries of search terms with searches
for pictures. A processing
applet translates the pictures found by the PHP script one after another
into autonomous particles. Each particle uses the colour value of a
preceding particle to generate the direction and the speed of its own
development. One of eight transforming manners is chosen by chance operations.
The particles can grow until the amount of 1500 and follow dynamics
producing similarities to three-dimensional representations (Processing,
PHP, Flash for the user interface. 6/2013; 3/2020: In 2018 Dreamlines
1.0 was susbstituted by Dreamlines
- Páll Thayer: On
Everything, 2006: The project combines the two sources: photos from
Flickr.com and texts from the RSS feeds of Blogger.com. Perl scripts
choose the sources and interprete them with the assistance of further
scripts (in Perl and as Pure Data patches). Creations of drawings with
coloured planes as transformations of photos from the database of Flickr,
text productions using the source of the feeds and texts interpreted
auditive with Speech Synthesis (MP3 streaming) are three observable
cords of the infinitely continuable generations (Image Magick, Autotrace,
Pure Data, Perl, Processing, Java a.o. Open Source. 6/2007; 3/2020:
only as documentation on the web).
- Páll Thayer: Microcodes,
since 2009: On the site "Microcodes" Pall Thayer publishes
his ideas for the use of the programming language Perl to write codes.
The codes can be read as texts as well as in regard of their capabilities
to control computing processes. Meanwhile Code Poetry combines parts
of codes with textual elements disregarding the code´s function
to control computing processes, the first line of all "microcodes"
is constituted by the command "#!/usr/bin perl" to start the
"Perl interpreter" (s. Thayer´s "Guide
for Non-coders". Perl, GNU GPL; 7/2015).
- Roxana Torre: Personal
World Map, 2005: On a world map presenting the continents as grey
areas it is possible to relocate capital cities of the world into the
center of the map via clicks on the localizations´ yellow marks.
On the top of the map appears a list for the choice of the flight duration
and the tickets´ prizes. The results are presented in the form
of maps with concentric circles indicating the distances of accessible
places ("anamorphic mapping"). It is possible to choose time
or money as parameters of the circles, too. If the accessible places
are contacted with the cursor then the ticket´s prize and the
flight´s duration appear (Flash, Python. 6/2007).
- UBERMORGEN.COM/Paolo Cirio/Alessandro Ludovico: GWEI
Google Will Eat Itself, 2005: The holders of websites receive
transfers from Google to their accounts for the activation of windows
usable by the AdSense program to insert text ads and GWEI uses theis
procedure to earn as much money as possible and to invest it in Google
shares. The shares are handed over to the GTTP Ltd. (Google To The People
Public Company) to distribute them back to the public of net participants.
The goal of the investments is to buy Google with nothing else than
with the profits derived from Google: The index
page of gwei.org presents the actual amount of shares, its worth
and the time needed for the ownership of Google if the actual speed
of profits and investments remains constant. The procedure to multiplicate
clicks within a network of websites by a series of robots has caused
the legal department of Google Germany to direct Hans Bernhard´s
attention in a certified
mail to the prohibition of such a procedure in the general terms
and conditions of AdSense Online and to inform him about their will
to prosecute infringements but no indictment followed. Furthermore,
Google excluded the sites installed (for the use as "decoy accounts")
by members of GWEI for the textual ads from its AdSense program without
being able to endanger the progress of the project (7/2007).
- Umbrellium: Thingful, 2013:
Usman Haque founded Umbrellium and started with Pachube (today: "Xively")
from 2007 on a project that uses data visualization on maps to offer
an overview of local sensors, whose data are connected via Internet,
publicly accessible (M2M sensors) and can be used for various purposes.
After the classic geotagging graphics still dominated "Pachube"
and the project was even more a software for various regional applications,
the starting point for "Thingful's" programming is now the global connectivity.
The graphical overview of the "internet of things" makes it
possible to find data collections according to the type of sensors (categories:
health, environment, home, energy, flora & fauna) separately with
specific colored tags as well as combined on satellite maps. Sensors
can be added to "watchlists". These lists facilitate the focus
on specific data collections. The map and its functions can be integrated
into websites (7/2015).
- Use All Five: Social
Weather Mapping | Smalltalk, 2009: "Smalltalk" visualises
Twitter entries with the predicates "sunny rainy snowy windy foggy"
(as well as its variants as nouns or verbs) signifying weather conditions.
Circles with planes in different colours for the (terms for) weather
conditions are located geographically at identifiable places of the
entries´ writers. The map is not constituted by geographical characteristics
but by the names of cities presented in geographical distances. Clicks
on circles show the usernames. Further clicks lead to the current remarks
with links to their origins on Twitter. A live feed under the map reveals
the last (above) and the second to the last (below) entry (Twitter search
- Martin Wattenberg: A
Net Art Idea Line, 2001: Fan-shaped lines are combined with designations
for types of NetArt. The width of the lines increases in accordance
with the quantity of examples. Cursor actions over lines widen the interspaces
and the titles appear together with popups which include short descriptions
of net projects of a certain type in a chronological order. Links connect
users with the projects. Java webdesign of a NetArt chronology. (3/2003).
- Jochen Maria Weber: Cuckoo,
2015: The encryption system uses social networks for the forwarding
of coded messages, but it turns the social networks´ control of
user data upside down. The encryption of senders and the decoding of
receivers is executed by small devices built with Arduino boards. The
method of encryption changes from message to message. The messages are
splitted and then sent via the API´s of Skype, Tumblr and Twitter.
The receiver device pieces the splinters together to reconstruct and
decode the messages (7/2015).
- Simon Weckert: Google
Maps Hacks, 2020: If smartphone users have enabled GPS localization,
then Google Maps will show the frequency with which these smartphones
move on roads by changing the color of the street line from green to
orange or red. When Weckert turned on the GPS localization of 99 smartphones,
loaded them into a handcart and pulled it on streets, then Google Maps
reacted by changing the color to red for traffic jams, while the video
documentation shows him walking on roads with little traffic (99 smartphones,
GPS, Google Maps, handcart, video documentation; 3/2020).
- Laimonas Zakas: Glitchr,
2011: Laimonas Zakas presents in his "Glitchr" version for
Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr
not text following the lines but letters leaving behind the context
of words and phrases to build visual patterns. Zakas demonstrates the
problems of social networks to program the participants´ input
in an adequate way. With his exclusive use of unicode
characters Zakas provokes the standardized (and maybe in the meantime
corrected) formatting of social networks and produces a new version
of visual poetry (6/2013).
Since August 2001 tips are added to the lessons. The tips refer
to actual projects and not like the "lessons"
to artistic websites and wider artistic complexes with groups of net projects.
The projects are presented briefly and are partly discussed in a scarce
Since March 2003 short tips introduce interesting projects in descriptions
not longer than six sentences. The short tips can´t constitute a
complete list of relevant net projects because works are not listed if
they are discussed in the lessons,
and in articles on general problems of net art (theory).
Links under project titles in the texts of short tips then no longer lead
to the original URL addresses, but to later created web documentations,
if the projects are inactive (if they are no longer functional or no longer
available on the web). Clicks on the illustrations for short tips open
the URL addresses of the websites where the projects were hosted at the
time of the realisation of screenshots: The original URL addresses are
stored as the links integrated in illustrations.
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